NEPHROLITHIASIS Nephrolithiasis Radiolucent Non-calcium 10% of stones Radio-opaque Calcium-containing 90% of stones Soft Stones Struvite Stones 10% of stones Cysteine Stones Non Calcium containing, but opaque Cystinuria Hard Stones Calcium oxalate/phosphate 80% of stones Uric Acid Stones Hyperuricosuria High protein intake Urinary tract infection Hypercalciuria Hyperoxaluria Enteric overproduction Low calcium intake Dietary Ethylene glycol ingestionAnatomical problem Increased PTH High salt intake High protein intake Stones with decreased solubility Low urine volume Hypocitraturia RTA type I High protein intake Medullary sponge kidney

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