HYPERNATREMIA Hypernatremia Excess free water loss Serum Sodium >145 mmol/LLow Urine Volume High Urine Volume Renal water loss GI lossInsensible loss Non-renal losses Burns ICU patients Fever Inadequate intake for exercise-related loss Hyperventilation HypodipsiaDecreased intake of water Diabetes Insipidus Hypertonic saline administration Osmotic diuresis (see Polyuria scheme) e.g., mannitol, glucosuria Watery Diarrhea Decreased level of consciousness No access to water High Urine Osmolality > 300 mmol/kgLow Urine Osmolality < 300 mmol/kg

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