Clinical pearls:

  • Always ask about smoking-biggest risk factor for hematuria secondary to malignancy.
  • IgA nephropathy can present with active urine/nephritic syndrome or nephritic/nephrotic syndrome.

HEMATURIA Hematuria Red blood cells on urine microscopy. Must exclude false positives from myoglobinuria, beet, drugs (pyridium, phenytoin, rifampin, nitrofurantoin), or menstruation Glomerular (Dysmorphic RBCs and/or RBC casts) Extraglomerular (Isomorphic RBCs with no casts) Upper Tract (above bladder) Lower Tract (bladder &below) Isolated Hematuria with benign sediment (injury to epithelial side of glomerular capillary wall) Hematuria with active sediment and >3.5g/day (nephrotic range) Proteinuria (injury to both endothelial and epithelial capillary wall) Anti-GBM antibodies Immune-complex deposition (IgA, post-strep, lupus) Pauci-immune disease (Wegener's) IgA nephropathy Thin GBM disease Hereditary nephritis (Alport's) Urinary Tract Infection? (Pyuria +/- nitrites with bacteria on microscopy) Isolated Hematuria with active sediment (injury to the endothelial side of glomerular capillary wall) Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Lupus glomerulonephritis Post-Infectious glomerulonephritis Vascular TubuloInterstitial Calculi (see scheme for renal colic) Trauma Neoplasm/Cyst (see schemes for renal mass) Trauma Neoplasm BPH CalculiIsolated extraglomerular hematuria is presumed to be secondary to malignancy until proven otherwise

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