HEMIPLEGIA Upper Motor Neuron WeaknessTone: Spastic with clasp-knife resistanceReflexes: Hyperactive +/- Clonus Pathological Reflexes: Babinski/Hoffman Contralateral/Sub-Cortical (Corona radiata, Internal Capsule) Cerebral Hemisphere (Contralateral motor cortex) Brain Stem Unilateral Spinal Cord Lesions Above ~C5 Aphasia Apraxia Agnosia Agraphia Acalculia Alexia Anomia Anosognosia Asterognosia Seizures Personality Changes Cognition/Confusion, Dementia +/- Sensory Loss May be without sensory loss May be combined with contralateral sensory loss Diplopia Dysarthria Dysphagia Ptosis Decreased Level of Consciousness Cranial Nerve Palsies 'Crossed' Sensory Findings: ipsilateral facial and contralateral extremity findings Brown-Sequard Syndrome (sensory loss to pain and temperature contralateral to weakness, vibration and proprioception loss ipsilateral to weakness)

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